What is the colon cancer

What is the colon cancer


  • 1 Overview
  • 2 causes of colon cancer
  • 3 colon cancer risk factors
  • 4 types of colon cancer
  • 5 symptoms of colon cancer
  • 6 diagnosed with colon cancer
  • 7 treatment of colon cancer
  • 8 methods of prevention of colon cancer
  • 9 to predict the development of colon cancer
  • 10 References


Colon cancer (known in English: Colon cancer) as a medical condition include the growth of metastasis in the large intestine called medically colon, [1] is called cancer name of the colon and rectum (in English: Colorectal cancer) when a multiplication of uncontrolled cells within the colon or rectum, the colon tube intramuscularly with a length of approximately 1.22 meters, and is important in the absorption of water from the body to the digestive system, in addition to its role in the formation of feces and deliver it to the rectum to get rid of it, and it can be said that the colon includes the area after the small intestine to the rectum of the digestive system , colon and consists of several parts, it begins in the ascending colon (English: ascending colon) which is the part that runs up on the right side of the abdomen, then the transverse colon (in English: Transverse colon), which runs from the right side of the abdomen to the left side, then colon descending part (English: descending colon), which runs down the left side of the abdomen, then the last part of a sigmoid colon (in English: sigmoid colon), which is part associated with the rectum, [2] [3] according to A study by the World Health Organization (English: World Health Organization) in 2018, the colon cancer is the third most common types of cancers prevalent, [4] However, it is one of the diseases that are preventable and treatable and recovery easily and completely, especially if it is diagnosed in stages early. [5]

The causes of colon cancer

Usually colon cancer appears in the lower parts of the colon descending area, or sigmoid colon, or rectum, but it may also arise in any part of the colon or rectum, and in general by colon cancer arises as a result of multiplying uncontrolled cells in the colon, due to the occurrence of a group of mutations (in English: mutation) in the genetic material inside these cells, called DNA RNA deficient oxygen (name in English: Deoxyribonucleic acid) and Acronym DNA, and continue these cancer cells to grow and multiply in the colon or rectum, and the addition of these may spread cells to other places in the body, such as the lymph nodes paracolic especially the liver or lungs and organs. [6] [7]

So far, what the direct cause behind the cancer is still colon is unknown, but it usually begins to form what is called Balslail (in English: Polyps), which are small clusters benign of cells, it is worth mentioning that these polyps are common very clearly when the elderly, where it is estimated that one person out of every four people over the age of 50 years, they have at least one of these descendants, and in addition it should be pointed out that these polyps in most cases do not cause any health problems, but they may turn in other cases to malignant tumors, this process of transformation and the need for many years, since most cancers arise from polyps that have passed their existence from five to fifteen years. [6] [7]

To learn more about the causes of colon cancer can read the following article: (the causes of colon cancer).

The risk of colon cancer agents

It should be noted the need to know that the presence of one of these risk factors does not mean that the person is infected with colon cancer, as well as its absence does not mean the exclusion of the disease, [8] It is worth mentioning that some of these factors can be controlled, while you can not control others , and the risk factors that can not be controlled or prevented can be stated as follows: [9]

  • The presence of family history of colorectal cancer, or ovarian cancer (in English: Ovarian cancer), or breast cancer (in English: Breast cancer).
  • The presence of polyps coli.
  • People over 50 years of age.
  • Incidence of disease inflammatory bowel (in English: Inflammatory bowel disease), which include inflammatory disease colitis (in English: Ulcerative colitis), Crohn's disease (in English: Crohn's disease), and two rheumatic diseases occur in which chronic inflammation of the intestine. [9] [10]

In addition, there are some serious preventable and prevention factors, as well as control, and these factors may be mentioned the following: [9]

  • Obesity and weight gain.
  • Lack of exercise.
  • Smoking.
  • Drinking alcohol.
  • A diet rich in red meat or processed, or eating cooked meat at high temperatures.

Types of colon cancer

Colon cancer belongs to a type of cancer that originate in the inner lining of the colon, known as cancers of glandular (in English: Adenocarcinoma), but other rare species may show the incidence of colon cancer, can be mentioned as follows: [11]

  • Asertauah: (English tumors: Carcinoid tumors), a cancer that originates from the intestinal cells producing hormones.
  • Lymphatic glands cancer: (English: Lymphoma), a cancer that often originates in the lymph nodes (in English: Lymph nodes) of the immune system, but may also arise in the colon.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: (English: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor), which tumors that arise in any position in the digestive tract, but they rarely appear in the colon.

Symptoms of colon cancer

It should be pointed out that colon cancer is not accompanied by any symptoms or signs of the appearance in the initial stages, so it is advisable to conduct necessary for the detection of infection tests of colon cancer regularly, [12] should also be alert to the symptoms of colon cancer does not necessarily mean infection actually, but if you continue to receive these symptoms for long periods of up to several weeks, you must resort to conduct the necessary tests, [13] It should be noted that the different origin of the cancer in the colon or rectum causes the appearance of a different patient with the symptoms, [12] and in what comes mentioned a range of symptoms associated with colon cancer: [13]

  • Diarrhea (in English: Diarrhea), or constipation (in English: constipation), where the bowel movement is constantly changing, as the patient feels no full dump the contents of the intestine of stool.
  • The appearance of a high stool appearance.
  • Blood in the stool appearance, it may be a red light or dark color, as it may be of a black color.
  • The constant feeling of bloat, and the presence of gas in the abdomen.
  • Feeling tired and constant fatigue.
  • The feeling of pain in the abdomen.
  • Weight loss is unjustified.
  • Vomiting.

To learn more about the symptoms of colon cancer can read the following article: (symptoms of colon cancer).

Diagnosis of colon cancer

The doctor resorts to conduct many tests of the patient for the diagnosis of colon cancer after asked about medical history, treatments received or still receive, in addition to the question about the health habits that followed, as mentioned or some of these tests in some detail: [14]

  • Physical examination: (English: Physical exam) as being a doctor examination general of the patient's body, so as to preview any signs or symptoms is unusual, as well as to note the existence of any lumps are abnormal, or swelling in the abdominal area. [15] [14]
  • Blood test hidden in the stool: (English: Fecal occult blood test) and Acronym FOBT, recourse is to fecal examination to detect the presence of blood in it, since the presence of blood in the stool helps to detect cancer of the colon and the presence of polyps.
  • Rectal examination area Alasbaa: (English: Digital rectal exam), as the examination of the rectum area manually to make sure the doctor is that there are no lumps or abnormal combinations therein.
  • Barium enema anal: (English: Barium enema) as the patient is given an enema containing barium material to encapsulate the lower part of the digestive system, and then a group of radiological images using X-ray (in English: X-ray) are taken.
  • Biopsy: (English: Biopsy), as it can take a biopsy of tissue inside the colon, so as to be examined under a microscope to make sure that there are no signs of cancer.
  • Colonoscopy: (English: Colonoscopy), as being colonoscopy for the colon to detect the presence of any abnormal combinations in which, as well as can be performed sigmoidoscopy (in English: Sigmoidoscopy), which specializes sigmoid part of the colon only.

To learn more about how to diagnose colon cancer can read the following article: (how to diagnose colon cancer).

Treatment of colon cancer

The choice of appropriate treatment for colon cancer usually on the patient's health status, and location of the cancer, and the stage was diagnosed during which, usually involves treatment to undergo surgery to remove the cancer, or the affected area of ​​cancer, or the affected area in addition to the adjacent lymph nodes, in addition to many other therapeutic options, [16] can be mentioned as follows: [17]

  • Radiation therapy: (English: Radiation therapy) often perform radiation therapy prior to surgery or after to reduce the size of tumors, or kill cancer cells that may remain after the surgery.
  • Chemotherapy: (English: Chemotherapy) is given chemotherapy also before or after surgery to shrink tumors or kill cancer cells, as well as given chemotherapy in cases of cancer spread to other parts of the body.
  • Immune therapy: (English: Immunotherapy) may be an appropriate option for patients who have cancer is characterized by specific genetic traits.
  • Oriented: (English therapy: Targeted therapy) is the principle directed treatment in the use of drugs vital modified (English: bio-engineered drug), as targeting specific proteins in cancer cells, may be used for targeted therapies alone or with other treatments.

Methods of prevention of colon cancer

Between researchers based on the fact that there are many factors that make more person susceptible to colon cancer, which are known risk factors, these factors avoid may help to reduce the chance of infection with this type of cancer, and tips that may reduce the likelihood of colon cancer appearance or help to prevent it as follows: [18]

  • Eating healthy food, it helps to eat rich fruits and vegetables, whole grains useful, and reduce the intake of foods containing red meat processing and the prevention of colon cancer.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Quit smoking and refrain from drinking alcohol.
  • Conduct tests periodically, and is necessary for people who have a risk of colon cancer and over the age of 50 years, in addition to people suffering from the disease of inflammatory bowel, or who have a family history of colon cancer or polyps, where such persons are advised to make the necessary age tests smaller.
  • Use treatments hormonal alternative (English: Hormonal replacement Therapy), as these contain disks on estrogen (in English: Estrogen) and progestin (in English: Progestin), and reduce these treatments the likelihood of colon cancer in women in menopause, but it is worth the alarm to that if taken these treatments by women with colon cancer, the probability of progression of the disease will increase. [19]
  • Removal of polyps, it can resort to the theory in order to get rid of polyps to ensure that they do not become cancerous cells, especially if the size of more than 1 cm. [19]

Forecasting the development of colon cancer

Most people with colon cancer live quite a normal life, as mentioned earlier, colon cancer is one of the health conditions that can be treated and cured, it is worth mentioning that the treatment of cancer varies from one person to another, some patients may need to combine several treatments to get the result required, and to ensure that the disease again. [20]


  • ↑ "About Colon Cancer", www.genome.gov,22-3-2012، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Charles Patrick Davis (30-7-2019), "Colon Cancer (Bowel Cancer)"، www.emedicinehealth.com, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "About Colon Cancer", www.uclahealth.org, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "latest global cancer data: Cancer burden rises to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer deaths in 20188", www.who.int,12-9-2018، Retrieved 19-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Colon Cancer", www.fascrs.org, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب Dr Colin Tidy (20-2-2018), "Colon, Rectal and Bowel Cancer"، www.patient.info, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Colon cancer", www.mayoclinic.org,8-10-2019، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ Charles Patrick Davis (21-3-2019), "Symptoms and Signs of Rectal Cancer Treatment"، www.emedicinehealth.com, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت "The Stages of Colon Cancer", www.onhealth.com,3-5-2016، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Inflammatory bowel disease", www.nhs.uk,25-4-2017، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Colon Cancer", www.mskcc.org, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Rectal cancer facts", www.seattlecca.org, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "About Colon Cancer", www.cancer.osu.edu, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version", www.cancer.gov,31-1-2020، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Bowel cancer", www.cancer.org.au,22-3-2019، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Colon cancer", www.mayoclinic.org, Retrieved 2-3-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Colorectal cancer requires expert care.", www.cancercenter.com, Retrieved 2-3-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Colorectal Cancer Risk", www.nyulangone.org, Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version", www.cancer.gov, Retrieved 3-3-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: Outlook / Prognosis", www.my.clevelandclinic.org,27-10-2018، Retrieved 18-2-2020. Edited.


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